The Velikovsky/Ackerman Scenario – Catastrophism
The following scenario is the net product of my work. It sums up the entire sequence of events interpreted from ancient myth in the language of modern science. I maintain that planetary science was led astray by an ambitious young astronomer (Carl Sagan) who, at the bidding of Harlow Shapely, viciously attacked Velikovsky's Worlds in Collision, which was on the correct track. The currently accepted interpretations of the data, which comprise the content of every book on the solar system, are hypothetical, not fact. They are all based on the ‘grand assumption’ that, because the solar system has been stable for the last 2,690 years, it has been that way for 4.5 billion years.
My scenario of recent planetary chaos is such an amazing story that it is difficult for most people, thoroughly indoctrinated in the uniformitarian paradigm, to accept. I believe that anyone who reads my books, Firmament, Chaos and Peleh: Hidden Knowledge will agree that recent planetary chaos formed our world and the entire solar system we see today. It is particularly difficult for the academic community to accept, because they are trained to believe that there is only one answer to a problem - the one they were taught in school, and the peer review system enforces that belief at every turn. Unfortunately, those with a more rounded background, particularly those with a knowledge of the classics and mythology, who have a broader base of knowledge, are intimidated by the arrogance of scientists and as a consequence, go along with the current paradigm.
The Younger Dryas - The Capture of the Moon?
Some 11,640 years BP (before the present) two catastrophic events occurred which, I believe profoundly modified the Earth system. Based on evidence turned up by Velikovsky, this pair of events caused two over-turnings of the Earth’s mantle. These signaled the beginning of a major metamorphosis of the Earth. We suggest that the two events, separated by 1300 years, that delineated the Younger Dryas period, the Preboreal to Younger (or Upper) Dryas (PB/YD) transition, and the YD/Holocene transition were the final encounters that marked the capture of the Moon into its current orbit around the Earth. The two closest passes of the Moon exerted sufficient torque on the Tibetan-Himalayan complex to reorient the spin axis of the mantle 180 degrees. This meant that, after the first encounter, the Sun rose in the west and set in the east. The second close pass resulted in a similar event, thus returning the mantle to its original orientation. These over-turnings were actually part of the 'cultural memory' of several ancient cultures, including the Egyptians, who related the fact to Solon the Greek.
There is evidence in the Greenland ice cores that the Moon had a number of less traumatic encounters, which, although they did not overturn the Earth, did each expend a significant amount of the lunar orbital energy. The net effect of this sequence of encounters was the capture of the Moon in its current orbit about the Earth. The notion that the mantle can rotate independently from the solid core is already recognized by Earth scientists. But because of the current paradigm no scientists have considered the implication for close encounters of planet-sized bodies. Although specialists in astrodynamics have never considered this mechanism, we claim that the 'viscous slipping' of the mantle relative to the solid core of the Earth provided the 'energy sink' which made the capture possible. Such slippages, which are also an important aspect in the entire V/A scenario, are possible because the solid core is isolated from the mantle by several thousand kilometers of liquid iron in the outer core. The Younger Dryas encounters were extremely destructive, resulting in the extinction of hundreds of animal species, many in North America. But, as a result of this capture, the climate of the Earth was stabilized in a way that now prevents the radical variations of temperature that characterized the climate before that time, i.e. the ice ages and interstitials. The Greenland ice cores show unequivocally the profound climate change that occurred at that date.
These ancient encounters probably initiated the up-thrusting of the Himalayan-Tibetan complex, which was already unstable by virtue of the impact of the Indian plate into the Asian plate. Geologists, trained in uniformitarianism, believe that this uplifting took place an inch at a time, and therefore required at least two million years. We claim that it took place as a result of close encounters with the Moon and later with proto-Venus. The uplifting of this massive region had a profound effect on subsequent interactions between priori-Mars and the Earth.
The Pre-Vedic Solar System
Prior to 4000 B.C. there existed only two terrestrial planets, one I call priori-Mars and the Earth. That is, Mercury and Venus were not present in the solar system. Priori-Mars, the more ancient of the two by some 800 million years, based on the oldest rocks from Mars and the Earth, was in an orbit similar to that of Venus today. It had a thick atmosphere, lots of surface water, rain, and a myriad of life forms similar to those found on Earth. The entire planet was covered with vegetation.
Jupiter was a calm, bluish, planet comprising primarily solid, low-density, methane gas hydrates (clathrates), which incorporated all the elements in their primordial proportions. Saturn was the brightest planet in the heavens, because it already had its extravagant ring system - the result of water splashed from its clathrate surface into space by an large impact a few millennia earlier. Uranus and Neptune also existed but could not be seen by the naked eye. The Earth was in an orbit similar to its present one, but it was not the hardy planet we know today. It was a cold and inhospitable planet with little or no rain. It did not have as much oxygen in its atmosphere as it now does. The oceans reached only to the edges of the continental shelves and the Mediterranean comprised three land-locked fresh water lakes. Species of Neolithic beings, tended herds, did some farming, built modest shelters, and made tools of Bronze and had no spoken language. However, as late as 4,000 BC, we (Homo Sapiens Sapiens) did not yet exist.
The Vedic Period Begins - Proto Venus Encounters
Then approximately 6,000 years ago a massive galactic 'traveler' entered our solar system at very high velocity and impacted the solid gas hydrate planet Jupiter, releasing some 1042 ergs. It bored deep into the low density surface of Jupiter and vaporized a mass of material, which was several times the mass of Venus today. This mass of vaporized material rebounded into space through the atmospheric tunnel created by the impactor. The resulting plasma cloud was many times larger than Jupiter itself and glowed with a golden color. Most of this mass rebounded with such high velocity that it escaped the gravitational pull of Jupiter and went into an eccentric orbit around the Sun. It quickly contracted due to its mutual gravitational attraction. Its gravitational potential was converted to heat as the converging atoms collided, forming a star-like body or proto-planet, with a temperature above 10,000 K. This was the birth of proto-Venus.
Its initial orbit brought it closer to the Sun than the current distance of Venus from the Sun, while its aphelion was near Jupiter, its point of origin. Its initial orbital period was approximately five years and it crossed the orbits of the Earth and priori-Mars. But the great energy of its eccentric orbit was rapidly converted to heat, due primarily to interactions with the Sun at perihelion. Two mechanisms were active in this process. Tidal forces greatly distorted its shape and caused chaotic motions in its fluid interior. Moreover, electromagnetic forces, due to the interaction of the ionized body of the proto-planet with the magnetic field of the Sun converted even more of its orbital energy into internal heat. Thus it was reheated again and again at each perihelion passage, repeatedly increasing its temperature above 10,000 degrees for decades. This resulted in the rapid reduction of its eccentricity and is an example of how, in certain unique circumstances, electromagnetic forces become significant in astrodynamics. The rebounded plasma cloud had a high proportion of heavy elements than Jupiter itself, due to the addition of those from the impacting body. The heavy elements immediately concentrated toward the its center. Its high temperature and the radiation pressure from the heavy elements caused great volumes of the lighter elements, already relegated to the periphery, to be out-gassed and lost to space. Thus the same process of converting orbital energy rapidly to heat resulted in the increasing of its average density from 1.33 gm/cm3, characteristic of the material before its ejection from Jupiter, to over 5 g/cm3, characteristic of a terrestrial planet. This is how all terrestrial planets are formed.
The great beauty of this process is that although the volatile light atoms, which make up the oceans and atmospheres of terrestrial planets (H, C, N, O, Na, Cl), are initially lost to space, they remain, invisible, in the inner solar system for millennia and are captured by the proto-planet when it cools or by older extant planets like the Earth. This eliminates the hypothesis, currently in vogue, which suggests that the oceans on the Earth were supplied by billions of comets.
Proto-Venus had innumerable close encounters with priori-Mars because its perihelion was near to the (then) orbital radius of priori-Mars. The net result of these encounters was to eject the latter from its ancient inner orbit, to one of larger and larger radii, as the two bodies exchanged orbital energy. The combination of the solar retardations and Martian encounters reduced proto-Venus' eccentricity rapidly to the point that it barely reached the vicinity of the Earths orbit in less than fifty years. At the same time the radius of priori-Mars' orbit was moved outward, bringing it closer and closer to the Earth. Their encounters in the vicinity of the Earth provided a startling and scary show which included the continuous quaking and creaking of the Earth.
During this fifty year period the flaming proto-Venus passed extremely close to the Earth on two occasions, with only a few planetary radii separating them, and scorched a significant fraction of the Earth's surface. In addition, its tidal forces on the equatorial bulge and the Himalayan complex exerted an impulsive torque on the mantle of the Earth, which, in less than a day resulted in a third over-turning of the mantle, without reducing its rate of spin. To any survivors, the Sun was then seen to rise in the west and set in the east. But within a few decades proto-Venus returned, overturning the mantle for the forth time, returning the mantle to its original orientation.
On the first pass proto-Venus scorched the Earth across North Africa, the Middle East, central Asia to what is now Pakistan, burning everything in its path. The heat was so great along this path that all organic material was obliterated, creating the great deserts that now exist in these areas. Astronaut Jay Apt described this scorched path as the most striking feature on Earth when viewed from space. At that date the Sahara became a desert. All the volcanoes of the Earth erupted. The ‘mountains’ on the bed of the Mediterranean were exposed. The Nile river was completely dried up. These two overturnings of the mantle were similar to those earlier ones marking the Younger Dryas. Even more destructive than the scorching, they caused kilometer-high tidal waves which swept across entire continents, tumbling great boulders before them, killing most Neolithic people and animals and leaving the low lying areas filled with water and clay from the depths of the oceans. This killing event is recognized in archaeology as the beginning of the Bronze Age, which although radiocarbon dated at ~3250 BC, becomes ~4000 BC, when tree ring corrections are applied. The killing is marked by the 300 year BA I, also called the ‘silent period’ because of the lack of artifacts from this period. This was the period required for the repopulation of the Earth. I maintain that shortly after the destruction, Homo Sapiens Sapiens was introduced on the Earth by fiat, as described in the Bible. Immediately after the BA I the great civilization in the Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, and Egypt suddenly arose ‘out of nowhere.’
Soon after this, a complex three-planet interaction occurred between priori-Mars and proto-Venus in the vicinity of the Earth. As a result of this encounter, sufficient orbital energy was transferred to priori-Mars to send it for the first time into an orbit which crossed that of the Earth. The same interaction further reduced the radius of proto-Venus' orbit, as dictated by the principle of conservation of energy, so that henceforth it remained inside the orbit of the Earth, signaling the end of the most destructive phase of what I term the Vedic period. In this eccentric orbit, proto-Venus still came quite close to the Earth every thirty years, due to the correspondence of its aphelion to its inferior conjunctions. The very hot proto-Venus remained in this orbit for over three millennia and remained an imposing sight when it approached the Earth, still glowing a dull red color but with a beautiful atmospheric envelope, acquired from priori-Mars and from sulfur gases vented from its super-hot interior, extending in a comet-like tail resulting from the loss of hot sulfur to space. This was the deity Mitra-Varuna in the Vedas. Mitra, the solid planet visible during daylight and Varuna with his golden robe, visible only at night.
The Priori-Mars Encounters
The three planet interaction mentioned above initiated a resonance so amazing that no one in modern times, not even Velikovsky or all the science fiction writers in the world, have imagined. It resulted in priori-Mars being captured for fifteen years in a geosynchronous orbit and fifteen years later being released into its planetary orbit. This sequence of events was repeated one hundred times, for a total of 3000 years – the Vedic Period, or the period when the Olympic gods ruled the world. Priori-Mars was captured in a geosynchronous orbit, tidally locked onto the Himalayan-Tibetan complex, and during each encounter its north pole remained oriented toward the Earth. The two planets actually revolved about their common center of mass, like a lop-sided dumbbell. This period of their revolution defined the length of a day, which, because of the greater moment of inertia of the pair, became 360 days per year during each encounter.
It seems truly amazing but the ancient myths provide sufficient detail to determine the actual orientation of both planets during the encounters – and they are unimaginable to modern astrophysics. Upon each capture the spin axes of both planet’s mantles changed, while their solid cores remained roughly parallel to one another. As priori-Mars approached, its mantle’s spin axis was torqued around from its normal orientation, roughly parallel to that of the Earth, until its north pole pointed directly toward the Earth. No scientist today has an inkling of how this could have been, but it is really quite simple. The torque required to maintain its spin axis pointing toward the earth was caused by the tidal force of the Earth acting on a great anomalous mass near the equator of priori-Mars, which is now known as the Tharsis Bulge. This feature was much more pronounced during the Vedic period, due to earlier interactions with proto-Venus which had distorted the smaller planet into what was described in a number of myths as a 'dog-faced' body. The tidal force on this raised mass continually torqued the spin axis of priori-Mars in the direction of the center of the Earth throughout every dance encounter. As would be expected due to the asymmetry of the Tharsis Bulge (only on one side), its rotation was described by the ancients as a wobbling (precessing) celestial wheel or churn. Its apparent diameter was twenty times and its area over four hundred times that of the Moon. It spun slowly about its axis once per day, fixed only about 33,000 kilometers above the Himalayas. In many cultures the Earth and priori-Mars were described as resembling two wheels at the opposite ends of an (partially) invisible axle. In another, the author wonders what prevents it from falling to Earth.
However, under 'normal' circumstances, the Tibetan-Himalayan complex is 30 degrees north of the equator. As priori-Mars approached and became tidally latched onto this complex, its mass forced the spin axis of the Earth's mantle to migrate about thirty degrees, so that the tidal link was on a new, temporary equator. As indicated above, the mantle is free to rotate independently of the solid inner core. As a result of this thirty degree shift, the temporary 'north pole' of the Earth, during each of the 'dance encounters', was relocated to Hudson Bay, in North America. When priori-Mars broke away every fourteen years, the pole reverted to its current position. Taking the Hindu myths at face value, ninety-nine (there were ninety-nine Indras) or one hundred (Brahma’s life comprised 100 holy days) such encounters took place during the Vedic period. The anomalies in the apparent motion of the Sun and stars, chronicled in many cultures, for example the ‘long day of Josua’ in the Bible, occurred at the transition times, either when priori-Mars was being captured or released. These apparent accelerations or retardations of the Sun were due to the reorienting of the spin axis of the mantle in order to capture priori-Mars over the Himalayas. This process involved relatively little energy dissipation, because the rate of spin of the Earth did not change significantly.
It seems at first consideration, that such a massive body as priori-Mars rotating about the Earth once a day would have traumatic effects on the Earth, but this was not the case. Although enormous ocean tides were raised on both bodies, their orbits and spins were oriented in such a way that, once established, the tides on both bodies remained stationary. Because priori-Mars was in a geosynchronous orbit the tide on the Earth did not sweep around the planet once per day, as do the tides due to the Sun and Moon. Also because the north pole of priori-Mars continually pointed toward the Earth, its tide remained stationary at the pole. This configuration, once established, was one of minimum energy dissipation, and therefore relatively quiescent. Nature favors such configurations. The greatest trauma for the Earth occurred during the capture and also the release which occurred under the auspices of the nearby proto-Venus, at which times earthquakes were continuous and flooding resulted from the redistribution of the oceans.
There is a persistently recurring notion in the myths of ancient cultures that the Moon was a great mirror and that the light highlands and dark maria are in actuality reflections of the continents and oceans of the Earth. The idea is sometimes attributed to Aristotle, but there is a hint of the idea in the writings of Homer, dating to the eighth century B.C. In the 19th century Alexander von Humboldt encountered the mirror concept at Isfahan, Persia. Of course, this is not true of the Moon, there was a valid precedent for this idea. When the tidal sea formed around the north pole of priori-Mars facing the Earth, it acted as a mirror and therefore people on Earth could indeed see a small image of the Earth in that sea because it formed a convex mirror in space. The visibility of this image would have depended on the brightness of our sky, whether the side of the Earth toward priori-Mars was illuminated, and whether the surface of priori-Mars was in darkness. A few generations after priori-Mars departed the scene, the true nature of the reflecting body was `forgotten' and the best explanation for the heavenly body became the Moon. Thus, as amazing as it might seem, the pictures taken by the Apollo astronauts of the beautiful blue Earth suspended in the black void of space may not have been the first image of the Earth globe seen by mankind.
The tidal force of the Earth caused strong mars-quakes in the northern hemisphere and the reduced pressure caused melting of subsurface rock. This was gradually drawn up through myriads of cracks and first appeared within the northern ocean (Oceanis Borealis). This was the Vedic `golden egg' in the midst of the waters, the first manifestation of the primary deity, Brahma of Hinduism, Osiris of the Egyptians, the Column of Smoke and Fire of the Jews. Gradually the eruption increased through the waters and became a lava fountain that eventually attained an altitude of 1000 kilometers or more at the north pole of priori-Mars. This was made possible by the hardening of millions of vertical lava tubes which were supported in large degree by the tidal force of the Earth. Seven great volcanoes, called the seven holy rishis (priests) in Vedic lore and the Pleiades in Greek myth, also flared mightily up during each encounter. The reappearance of these features, considered deities, was the origin of the notion of reincarnation in all eastern religions.
When the two mutually orbiting planets passed through alignments with the Moon, worse yet the Sun and Moon combined, priori-Mars' interior was greatly convulsed and hot bodies as large as twenty kilometers, were ejected from the interior, carrying with them great storms of smaller surface rocks, red dust, and atmospheric gases and water into space. Most of the atmospheric gases and water fell to Earth and over the 3,000 plus years of the Vedic period, completely changed and enriched the Earth beyond anything imagined today. The large bodies ejected from deep within the planet with the assistance of the tidal force of the Earth, became the Near Earth Asteroids and those from near the surface, containing aquifers, became the short period comets, such as Borrelly, which has surprised scientists because it is mostly rock the size of Mt. Everest, with a small amount of vapor being expelled from a few vents.
The enormous lava column at the north pole often collapsed during these convulsions only to be reformed in a few weeks by new magma from deeper in the planet. The debris of these collapses are visible in the panoramic surface photographs taken by both Viking landers. These events on priori-Mars surface were repeated to such a uniform degree that the Vedic hymns specifically divided each encounter into four 'kalpas' of gradually decreasing length, describing the progression of events from one to another in great detail. The different kalpas were characterized primarily by the nature of the bodies that were ejected into space from the interior of priori-Mars in each period. It is stated in many instances that the same progression of events was repeated during each encounter.
Flooding on Earth
The transitions to and from the dance encounters were accompanied by continuous earthquake activity because the tidal forces exerted on different tectonic plates tended to pull or push the plates horizontally. In those days earthquakes were continuous. The most disruptive transient events for human cutures, particularly in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and the Indus Valley (where a large fraction of the ancient population lived), was tidal flooding at the time of the capture and release of priori-Mars. Its mass was about 0.16 times that of the Earth and its center approached to within 44,000 kilometers of the center of the Earth. As a result, it produced an enormous ocean tide, some 5000 feet high, which inundated northern India. Its altitude is recorded by a unique horizontally bedded layer called the Siwalik, containing the bones of animals, the habitats of which range from sea level to a mile high, in the foothills of the Himalayas. These deposits exist because unlike the tides we experience today which sweep around the globe as it rotates, this tide remained fixed for fifteen years at a time. This high tide was formed by the drawing of water from the periphery of the hemisphere facing priori-Mars. As a result, the ocean depth was greatly reduced in a band which included the northeastern Atlantic between Iceland and the British Isles and the area of the Aleutian Islands, which would have facilitated human migration between continents. But the most significant areas were those of relatively large populations, such as the Mediterranean and Red Sea.
The flow of the waters to their new tidal levels was constrained by the local topography to a degree. But at the onset of each encounter the water of the Mediterranean was drawn across the northern Sahara and flooded northern Egypt, Cairo and the Giza plateau, as deep as 50 meters. The Mediterranean also exited through the Red Sea, and flowed over the Negev, Palestine and further north, through the Jesreel Valley through Mesopotamia within the Tigris and Euphrates valley to the sea. This adjustment took, at most, a few days, and the new coastlines that resulted from the presence of priori-Mars remained stationary for the duration of each encounter. I maintain that the purpose for building the pyramids in Egypt, the tells in the Levant and the ziggurats was to avoid the sudden floods caused by the capture of priori-Mars every thirty years. The low-lying areas along these courses, particularly in the Tigress and Euphrates valley remained inundated for months or years after each flood. During the encounters, the Mediterranean and Red Seas were almost completely emptied, and whatever residual water remained, evaporated during the fifteen year encounters. Evidence supporting this view comes from multiple layers of evaporites which cover the bottom of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. These layers are currently misdated and thus called the `Messinian Salinity Crisis' by geologists, who cannot imagine what caused many complete dessications of such a large body of water could occur by evaporation.
But the flooding in our scenario was more complex than the mere shuttling back and forth of the waters due to the arrival and departure of priori-Mars. Throughout the Vedic period, there was a massive influx of water from priori-Mars - the `Deluge from Heaven.' Much of this fell initially in the Tibetan-Himalayan complex where it collected in great lakes in the high mountain valleys, such as the Tarim Basin, which is equal in area to the state of Texas. These stored vast amounts of water but eventually broke their containment and catastrophically cut the five great river channels through the Himalayas in days or weeks. Convincing evidence of this lies in the fact that the headwaters of all five originate in the vicinity of the sacred Mt. Kailas, called by the Tibetans, the home of Indra on Earth.' The total rise in sea level due to the influx of priori-Mars’ water is difficult to access because a great increase of mass in the oceans may simply compress the ocean bottom or cause the continents to ‘float’ higher and not be evidenced as sea level changes. The sea level increases of the recent geologic past are estimated at about 150 meters, but this is currently attributed to the melting of ice-age glaciers.
The flooding at the termination of each encounter was less severe than at the onset. This is best understood by explaining the events in the heavens, which were the most amazing of all. As a result of these convulsions and the continuous tidal force of the Earth, priori-Mars deviated more and more from a spherical shape - forming a shape that resembled the head of a lion and the even more distorted shape like the head of a pharaoh, with its characteristic headdress, formed by liquid iron drawn from its outer core into the microgravity space environment between the Earth and priori-Mars. This was the source of all iron meteorites, which continue to fall to Earth as their orbits decay. The gradual weakening of priori-Mars contributed to the events that occurred at the time of the break-off of the encounter, but the approach of Venus was obviously crucial. Another crucial factor was the alignment of the Sun and the Moon. This is implied by the fact, pointed out by Velikovsky, that the releases always took place at the vernal equinox (The Passover). The details of each disengagement constitute the most amazing events of this, already amazing scenario. - beyond anything that any human, scientist, science fiction writer or mythologist has ever imagined.
The solid iron core of priori-Mars first appeared through a great crack, currently thought to be a canyon - the Valles Marineris. This was the same opening through which the liquid iron from the outer core exited earlier. It appeared as a great eye, and was called the `eye of Horus' or the ‘eye of Ra’ by the Egyptians. The cracks around this feature exactly trace out the shape of the hieroglyph representing the `eye of Horus.' This event was also the origin of the one eyed `Cyclops,' of Greek myth, who were ‘renown iron workers.’ Then the glowing solid core of priori-Mars completely exited the planet, and dropped into a lower, faster orbit around the Earth, which caused it to move to the East. Its resulting speed, relative to the stationary priori-Mars, was the source of its designation as the speedy one, or the messenger of the gods - Mercury. At the same time, the mantle and whatever liquid iron remained within it, began to drift westward. After one or two orbits of the Earth, the solid core rejoined its mantle and was described as riding it piggy-back away from the Earth. The Egyptian book of the dead says the rejoining required eight days. The solid core reentered the shell through the Valles Marineris gash, once away from the tidal influence of the Earth. During the next fifteen years priori-Mars reshaped itself, and the water lost from its northern hemisphere was redistributed around the planet in preparation for the next encounter. Because priori-Mars separated into two parts and these moved around the Earth in opposite directions, the flooding on Earth at the time moved in opposite directions and was not concentrated to the degree that it was at the date of the capture, when priori-Mars was intact.
The Final Breakaway
The question inevitably arises as to how this potentially dangerous planetary visitor was removed from the vicinity of the Earth once its ‘purpose,’ the delivery of all its water and atmosphere to the Earth, was complete. The explanation is very interesting because it also explains the current orbits of Venus, Mercury and Mars. The end of the Vedic period was signaled by the final breakaway of priori-Mars. Based on Velikovsky's date of the death of Romulus, we estimate that this occurred in 687 B.C. At that time something different happened. Astrophysicists will initially voice disbelief at the notion of priori-Mars leaving the vicinity of the Earth, without the presence of another body. But, as with all of the other ideas presented here, they lack the knowledge provided by ancient myth.
Although the core of priori-Mars had rejoined the mantle on all previous occasions, something unusual happened on the final one. The change in the length of the month just at that time, from 36 to 29.5 days, implies that the Moon may have interacted with one part of priori-Mars while it was separated. As a result the two were not able to recombine. The result was that the mantle drifted outward in the solar system and the core drifted inward, in such a way that conservation of energy and angular momentum was maintained. Where did they go? The mantle collapsed forming a smaller solid spherical body sans solid core and drifted into the colder reaches of the solar system to become the (incomplete) planet we now call Mars. Its low density, strictly liquid core and lack of a magnetic field are consistent with this scenario. The solid core interacted with Venus for several centuries, during which time Venus was still described as a 'comet,' still outgassing sulfur. These interactions resulted in the current orbits of Venus and Mercury. Solar system modelers have detected what they call a 'resonance' between Mercury and Venus but have no idea of the recent events that placed them in their current orbits.
The beautiful Earth we know today did not exist twelve thousand years ago. That ancient Earth was a much more hostile and dangerous place. But beginning with the stabilization afforded by the Moon at the time of the Younger Dryas, followed by the cosmic encounters during the Vedic period, the Earth was finally prepared for the full compliment of mankind. The creation of the Earth obviously occurred some 3.9 billion years ago, but the advent of mankind and the ongoing preparation of the Earth for him only 6000 years ago, immediately after the Earth was made void and without form (tohu and bohu) by the proto-Venus maurader. What a profound and exciting discovery!
The Priori-Mars-Forming of Earth
One of the most irresponsible notions advanced recently in the popular space literature is that of 'terra-forming' Mars, that is, modifying it to be more earth-like. The very notion that mankind could modify the environment of an entire planet hundreds of millions of kilometers from Earth is ludicrous, considering that we have been unable to modify the great deserts of the Earth, some of which are adjacent to oceans. What these writers, indeed, all the scientists on the Earth, do not understand is that the Earth itself was just revitalized, by the infusion, on a planetary scale, of all the atmosphere and water originally on the more ancient priori-Mars, during the Vedic period. As a result, priori-Mars is bone dry - in spite of the landforms left by the massive tidal flows toward its north pole and the Oceanis Borealis, that occurred only a few thousand years ago. Scientists, who believe that these massive flows occurred billions of years ago, still ponder the question of where all the water went. Ironically, it makes up a part of every living thing on this Earth, including the baffled astrophysicists. Mankind must learn to be satisfied with what he has and to be be a good steward of the beautiful planet which a superior ‘scientist’ has prepared for him.