Mythology - Egyptian

          by John Ackerman

Egyptian mythology parallels much of Vedic and Hindu mythology because both cultures observed the same long series of cosmic events. In addition it provides more graphic images than do the Indian myths. In spite of the rich images, Egyptologists still are not aware of the proximity of other planets near the earth. A significant difference in current interpretations of Hindu and Egyptian myth, lies in the Egyptologists notion that the ‘disc’ was that of the Sun, whereas the mandala (translated disc or world) in Indian myth is usually thought to be the Earth.

As in most other cultures, a sky disc is central to Egyptian myth because priori-Mars remained stationary in the sky, twenty times the diameter and 400 times the area of the Moon for fifteen years at a time. It then escaped from the Earth for fifteen years, only to be recaptured. This process was repeated 100 times due to the synchronization of the orbits of Earth, priori-Mars and proto-Venus. During the ‘dance encounters’ the additional moment of inertia due to the presence of priori-Mars slowed the rotation of the Earth, causing there to be only 360 days per year. During the fifteen years when priori-Mars was absent five extra days called the heriu renpet were added to the year. Such a dual calendar was used in all ancient cultures. Reform producing the modern calendar was adopted several hundred years after the final encounter, which occurred at 687 BC.

Just as the Vedic myth, Egyptian myth describes land in the heavens surrounded by water. This was the planet priori-Mars, in geosynchronous orbit over the Transhimalayas. It was characterized as having earth, sky and the mysterious Duat. It comprised Nut the watery one, the solid portion, Geb and the deity which was thought to keep it from falling to Earth, Shu. The Duat was probably the portion of priori-Mars which was in shadow at any time of day, because it was described as lying within the body of Nut. Priori-Mars, ‘stationary’ over the Transhimalayas to the east of Egypt, was also referred to as ‘Horus Am Akhet’, or ‘Horus on the horizon.’ This was also the Egyptian name for the Sphinx (the Greek name) which faces the east toward its location.

Pharoah Akhenaten worshiping Aten-Re priori-Mars Etgyptian mythThe north pole of priori-Mars remained facing the earth during the 15 year intervals that it was captured in geosynchronous orbit. In the first stage of each encounter, the tidal force of the earth drew all the water on its near side toward its north pole, creating what scientists today call the Oceanus Borealis. Melting of subsurface rock began at the same time but took much longer to become manifest. This magma gradually rose through innumerable cracks in the rocks, first forming a visible ball of lava within the waters, the ‘primeval mound.’ This magma ball continued to swell until it rose above the waters, and was thus surrounded by water. This corresponds to the avataras of Vishnu. From this ta-tenen (rising land) a myriad of lava fountains shot into the air toward the Earth, eventually combining into a massive feature perhaps a thousand kilometers high, with flames shooting from the top. This enormous structure was made possible by the solidification of the outer surfaces, forming vertical lava pipes, which were partially supported by the tidal force of the Earth. This red, glowing column, pointing down toward the Earth, dominated the disc of priori-Mars and was the primary deity in every eastern culture for over 3,000 years. It was called Asar (Osiris in Greek) by the Egyptians, Brahma by the Hindus and the column of smoke and fire by the Jews. This feature is clearly depicted in the relief of Akhenaten worshiping Atenwhich becomes active (effective) when the disc (of priori-Mars) is in the Akhet (horizon)’. The lava feature is shown as it appeared to the Egyptians, i.e. at an angle to the vertical. The relief also shows that the feature rises on the ta-tenen, the land which extended above the waters.

tet 'djed piller' osiris atenThe hieroglyph called the tet is a semi-graphic representation of this feature. The multiple lines correspond to the four (or five) heads of Brahma in Hindu myth. The Egyptians also saw this as a ladder extending downward toward the Earth by which a deceased Pharaoh could ascend to heaven. Many hieroglyphs intermix the symbols of Osiris with that of the tet, also called the djed pillar, leaving no doubt as to their common origin.

The Egyptian deities Aten and Amun parallel the Hindu deities Brahmã and Brahma. Brahmã, with long a, referred to the manifested form, i.e. the great hardened lava column, while Brahma referred to the invisible, eternal deity from which the manifested Brahmã rose up during each encounter. The Egyptians saw Aten as the ‘effective' (erect) form while Amun or Amun-Re as the invisible, supreme deity. In both cultures the erect figure had sexual connotations. But the Hindus saw the lingus as inserted into the yoni (the sacred mountain), while the Egyptians saw it as pointed upward into space and held at the base by a hand.

Although priori-Mars remained stationary in the sky, and therefore always within view, it passed through phases of illumination by the Sun, similar to those of the Moon today, except that the entire cycle took only one day. The portion not illuminated directly by the Sun was probably illuminated by light reflected from the Earth and therefore it was not completely dark. At certain times of the year, depending on the inclination of its orbit, it also passed into the shadow of the Earth around midnight Transhimilayan time, or 2 AM Egyptian time. Because priori-Mars rotated around its axis, which was pointed toward northern India, the Hindus saw it as a giant wheel rotating once per day (Mars rotation today is very close to 24 hour period) and the great flaming column as the 'axis mundi', the axis on which both worlds rotated. As a result, the entry of various features into the Duat (shadow) was a function of both its orbital and rotational motion. Due to the great tidal force of the Earth, many volcanos in its northern hemisphere continually blazed - some so brightly that they could be seen even when the surface was illuminated. These were called the ‘circumpolar stars,’ in a number of cultures and the ‘constellations’ they formed, called ‘asterisms,’ in Vedic and Hindu myth.  They were divided into twelve zones by the Indians and Egyptians.

Another similarity between Egyptian and Vedic myth was the notion that a persons soul or reincarnation would go to the Duat (Egyptian) or Yama-Yami (Hindu). The Indians saw this as happening after they died, whereas the Egyptians thought that a spiritual ‘double’, or ka, was created by Khnum at their birth and resided in the Duat. The periodic departure of priori-Mars from the vicinity of the earth, which happened every thirty years, was the reason for this notion, because it then ‘went to the heavens,’ i.e. became star-like ‘with the gods.’ The departure is referred to in the Pyramid Texts as the times ‘when the sky was split from the earth and the gods went to sky.’

'Valles Marineris' 'eye of horus' 'eye of ra'

The cosmic events which accompanied the departures of priori-Mars from its geosynchronous orbit evoked many images and myths which make clear the true nature of a number of deities and hieroglyphics which are as yet completely misunderstood. Priori-Mars gradually became deconstructed during each fifteen year encounter with Earth, due to internal convulsions induced by highly transient alignments with the Moon and with the Sun and Moon combined (thus the ancients fear of eclipses). These convulsions shattered the thousand kilometer high hardened lava fountain, leaving more and more volcanic material on the surface, where it still covers vast areas. But each time the feature would be soon rebuilt by new lava from deeper in the planet. In the final stages of each fifteen year encounter the planet was so devastated that liquid iron from its outer core flowed out of the planet and was suspended in the near-zero gravity environment between priori-Mars and Earth, where it formed bizarre shapes. One such shape was ‘hood’ worn by the sphinx and Pharaohs.

This coincided with the closest approach of proto-Venus which was in an eccentric orbit inside that of the Earth. The combined tidal force actually drew the solid core of priori-Mars through the side of the planet so that it appeared glowing in the Valles Marineris, on its equator. This was seen by the Egyptians because they were off-axis, but because the north pole of priori-Mars was oriented toward the Vedic people, they do not have the same feature in their myth. This was the ‘Eye of Horus ’ or Re (Ra). Unequivocal evidence for this identification comes from a comparison of the images of Valles Marineris with the glyph for the eye of Horus, shown above. Note that the usual depiction of the Valles Marineris, with north upward, must be inverted to match the glyph. This corroborates the orientation of the planet with its north pole toward the Earth.

The solid core then exited the planet, dropped into a lower orbit, and raced to the east, while the outer shell moved higher and drifted to the west. The solid core orbited the Earth once and then rejoined the outer shell as the two drifted away from the earth, into a planetary orbit. The capture and release of priori-Mars occurred one hundred times (Brahma lived one hundred days, there were one hundred Indras). The final encounter was terminated when the two parts of the planet failed to recombine. At that time the solid core was deflected by the Moon and then interacted with Venus for several hundred years before they ended up in their current orbits. The solid core was the golden Hathor in Egyptian myth, Hermes in Greek myth and Mercury in Roman myth. This process is described in Egyptian myth, as follows:

As the god Ra (priori-Mars) aged and became infirm, Isis fashioned a serpent from the dust which, having been placed in his path, bit Ra and poisoned him. When he was close to death, Isis, in the form of an enchantress, heeded his call for help and administered to him. In order to treat him, she asks only that he state his name. Then Ra hid himself from the gods and the throne in the Boat of Ra was empty. When it was the time for the heart to come forth the great god was made to yield up his name, and Isis, the great lady of enchantments, said: Flow on, poison, and come forth from Ra; let the Eye of Horus come forth and shine outside his mouth...Let Ra live, and let the poison die; and if the poison live then Ra shall die.

The meaning of this myth is that priori-Mars became weakened (infirm) and distorted by fifteen years of internal convulsions. Eventually the liquid iron of the outer core was drawn out through the Valles Marineris into space. This was the impetus for the mythical idea that an aged Ra dribbled from his mouth. As proto-Venus approached the Earth-priori-Mars pair after fifteen years, it combined with the alignment of the Moon to induce particularly harsh convulsions within priori-Mars. At these times priori-Mars was literally pulled apart.

The alignment of priori-Mars with the Moon is implied by the involvement of Isis, the Moon. Marsquakes due to the alignment raised dust over the entire planet, obscuring all the natural features ('Ra hid himself'.) It was then that ‘the eye of Horus came forth.’ In the quote, the 'heart' is also described as 'the eye of Horus' or 'the eye of Ra,’ which is represented by the unique and mysterious hieroglyph interpreted above. This myth was obviously ‘written’ after the end of the Vedic period, since the consequences of the failure of the solid core to reenter are given as the death of Ra, i.e. the outward drift of the lithosphere of priori-Mars from the vicinity of the Earth (to become the ‘planet’ Mars) never to return.

'face of Horus'  'Tharsis Bulge'  'iron hook' 'Egyptian funerary ceremony'The only source of pure iron in the Bronze Age was from meteorites. The Egyptians realized that they were a direct result of the deconstruction of priori-Mars. As a result, iron was called bja. the ‘celestial metal’ and was used in funerary rituals which mimicked the events associated with the ‘death,’ of Ra or Horus. Priestesses dressed as Isis and Nephthys touched a narrow iron implement to the corner of the mouth on the coffin of the deceased, which corresponded to the place on priori-Mars where the iron core first leaked from the mouth of Horus. The ‘face of Horus ’ seen in ancient times is still identifiable on Mars (at right). The outer two of the three aligned volcanos are his eyes, Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the solar system is in the middle of his forehead, and his ‘beak ‘ (the reason his hieroglyph is that of a bird), was the Tharsis Bulge, which is marked by several concentric faults showing that it was much more prominent during the Vedic period. The western extension of the Valles Marineris cuts into the bulge, forming the mouth. This extension was simulated by the touching of the left side mouth by the sacred iron implement in the ritual.

The Legend of Osiris and Isis
Many scholars have attempted to interpret this myth, but failing to understand the catastrophic world of the times, it is an impossible task. It is now possible to make complete sense of it in the context of the Velikovsky/Ackerman (V/A) scenario, while at the same time revealing profound physical aspects of the Moon.

Osiris was the pre-eminent Egyptian deity. When he was born of the goddess Nut, a voice was heard to proclaim that the lord of creation was born. In the course of time he became the king of Egypt and devoted himself to civilizing his subjects and teaching them crafts. Once Egypt was peaceful and flourishing he set out to instruct other nations. During his absence, Isis ruled his kingdom well. When he returned, Typhon plotted with seventy-two comrades to slay him. At a banquet they got him to lie down in a beautiful chest, which was immediately closed by Typhon who then drowned Osiris by placing it in the Nile. This happened when he was in the twenty-eighth year of his reign or of his age.

When Isis found that Osiris had been killed she set out to find his body which had been carried by sea, supposedly to Byblos where it had come to rest in the branches of a tamarisk tree. The tree grew rapidly around the chest enclosing it inside the trunk. The king of the country had the tree cut down and the used it as a pillar to support the roof of his house. Isis found it and prevailed upon his queen for permission to retrieve the chest, which she brought back to Egypt. She hid the chest while she went to find her son Horus, but Set, one night hunting by moonlight found the chest and recognizing the body, tore it into fourteen pieces which he scattered. When Isis heard of this she took a boat made of papyrus and sailed round the world gathering all the fragments of Osiris' body except the phallus. Wherever she found one she placed a monument. But now Horus had grown up, and having been taught the use of arms by Osiris, who returned from the other world, he went to do battle with Set, the murderer of his father.

1. The voice heard at the time of the birth of Osiris was the disturbance of the Earth at the time of the great impact on Jupiter, out of which proto-Venus was born, triggering the 3,000 year period of chaos revealed in the V/A scenario. The disturbance of the earth at that time is present in the myths of a number of cultures.

2. "In the course of time" implies that it took several years for proto-Venus to approach Earth after its 'birth' out of Jupiter.

3. To “become lord of the Earth” meant to become the primary glowing deity that controlled the destiny of the Earth. Osiris was identified with fire or 'glowing' - this was the origin of the word we now interpret as 'god' in almost every ancient culture, and the word from which we derive the term 'glory' in the Judeo-Christian religion. Early in the Vedic period his power was associated with the newly born proto-Venus, just as was Zeus in Greek myth.

4. Osiris periodically "set out to instruct other nations" and "when he returned" are consistent with the periodic capture and return of priori-Mars. "During his absence, Isis ruled his kingdom well" reinforces the identification of Isis as the Moon.

5. The "sealing up of Osiris in the fine chest" when in the twenty-eighth year of his reign implies that a tenuous crust formed on proto-Venus in only a few decades after reaching the vicinity of Earth, obscuring its glow. To the ancient Egyptians, this was seen as a loss of power and the 'first' death of Osiris.

6. Osiris was subsequently transferred to priori-Mars, paralleling the transfer of power from Agni (blazing proto-Venus) to Varuna (proto-Venus with a crust) to Indra (priori-Mars) in the Vedas, and in Greek myth the transferring of the deity name Zeus, originally associated with Jupiter, to proto-Venus and then to priori-Mars. This transfer ‘went with the glow’ and was associated with the most threatening, glowing body at the time. Thus Osiris became the hardened glowing lava column with flames shooting from the top and tornados writhing around it on the surface of priori-Mars.

7. At the times of alignment of the Moon, moreover the Sun and Moon combined with priori-Mars, it became ugly, bloated, and erupted streams of large glowing rocks from volcanic vents, some of which fed the lava fountain. When this occurred the entire hardened lava-tube formation shattered and collapsed. Even more devastating convulsions resulted when proto-Venus (Set) approached and joined the alignment. On one occasion, a stream of fourteen exceptionally large glowing bodies were ejected in rapid succession from a single vent at the same time the feature called Osiris collapsed. They were therefore interpreted as pieces of the body of Osiris, scattered by Set. Because the bodies were ejected one after another in a 'stream' through a common vent they followed the same trajectory.

Isis boat papyrus Osiris8. Their orbit carried them outward from the Earth-priori-Mars pair to the Moon, where they impacted one after another. Mythologically, Isis (the Moon) was pictured ‘going round the Earth in a boat of papyrus ’ collecting the scattered parts of Osiris' body. The boat in which Isis is said to have traveled was the illuminated crescent of the Moon as it circled Earth (at right). Therefore, the Egyptians watched these impacts on the Moon and recorded them in their mythology. Indeed, to this day, the Egyptians celebrate a festival in early spring which is called expressly 'The Entrance of Osiris into the Moon.’

Moon 'Isis monuments'  osiris9 . Believe it or not, the monuments that Isis placed are still visible from the Earth to this day. They are the fourteen lunar maria, (at right) the large dark areas which are only found on the side of the Moon facing the Earth. The material in the maria are the actual rock bodies that impacted the Moon and melted.  The impacts were cushioned by an unconsolidated layer of regolith which had previously been deposited by innumerable earlier priori-Mars convulsions.

10. This beautiful myth is consistent with the Hindu myth, in which Brahma created (shot into space) four classes of ‘embodied’ spirits. One class was called ‘the fathers,’ whose home was said to be on the Moon. The Egyptians imagined that the original Osiris, who was associated with proto-Venus, died after 28 years and was resurrected under the auspices of Horus (Mars). This reinforces the brevity of the period in which proto-Venus wreaked its havoc on the Earth.

osiris raft lotus11. The Egyptians did not believe that, as a result of the scattering of his parts, Osiris perished permanently. The fact that Isis recoved all of his body parts except the male organ implies that the figure which rose up again on the surface of priori-Mars was thought to be that very part.  He, or his lingus, repeatedly 'returned from the other world,' as the lava fountain was quickly rebuilt after each convulsion of the interior. Figures at right show anthropomorphized images of Osiris after his 'transfer' from proto-Venus to priori-Mars. In the first he is pictured in his 'raft' on a lake with lotus plants in the water, and in the other, as Osiris-Res (Osiris the Riser) reposing on the ground with a snake below or beside him. These images parallel the Hindu myths which describe Brahmã as rising out of the osiris snake osiris-reswater, being born in a lotus growing from the navel of Vishnu, and reposing on the coils of a great snake Sesha during the 'nights of Brahma,’ i.e. when priori-Mars left the Earth.

Other attributes of Osiris are consistent with the V/A interpretation of the Vedic deity Varuna, associated with proto-Venus.

(a) Osiris commanded great respect because he governed by subtle persuasion. This parallels the Vedic reverence for Varuna and disdain for the noisy war-like blustering associated with Indra (Mars). This was due to the greater mass of proto-Venus which caused much stronger earthquake activity than priori-Mars, even though it was farther away, and because of its beauty after it had acquired its 'shining robe' (atmosphere).

(b) Egyptian myth conceived Osiris as being the husband of Isis (Moon) whose name is literally translated 'ancient.’ In Vedic myth Uma (Moon) was said to be the power behind Siva, the destroyer aspect of priori-Mars, because when she approached and passed behind him (i.e. became aligned with priori-Mars,) the latter convulsed and ejected many hot bodies into space.

(c) When the crust of proto-Venus was still tenuous, any tidal disturbance due to the approach of another body, such as Earth or priori-Mars, distorted it and the crust cracked in many places allowing the white hot magma to be exposed. These many glowing spots prompted the epithet ‘many eyed.’ The exact same epithet was associated with both Varuna and Osiris, when the latter was still associated with proto-Venus.

(d) The earliest figure thought to represent Osiris dates from the time of the Egyptian King Narmer - who is dated at about 3300 (uncorrected radiometric date) or 4000 BC, the very date we propose as the beginning of the Vedic period.

The deity Set, the counterpart of Typhon in Greek mythology, considered the antagonist of Osiris, was originally the serpentine smoke column which emanated from proto-Venus when it first approached the Earth. At that time, this serpent or dragon was seen in all cultures as attacking Osiris, i.e. with proto-Venus in its mouth.

'Osiris Khenti Amenti'  Osiris Queen Maat Ma'atA number of paintings of Osiris provide clues to his early association with proto-Venus. His earliest known image is called Osiris Khenti Amenti. It is depicted in the Papyrus of Nekht, a royal scribe, shown at right. The figures on the pedestal at the left, are the goddess Ma’at, 'queen of the two lands,’ and Osiris Khenti Amenti. We interpret these deities in the same way as we did the pair Mitra and Varuna in the Vedic hymns. Queen Ma’at represents the solid planet as does Mitra. Her identification as the planet proto-Venus is consistent with the fact that she is considered one of the most ancient of the Egyptian deities. Osiris, always shown wrapped in white, is analogous to Varuna who 'wore a golden robe.’ The white wrapping is commonly interpreted as a mummy shroud, but I interpret it as the bright atmosphere which the ancient people saw surrounding proto-Venus at night, in the years when it was near favorable conjunctions.

The strange shapes pictured on the heads of the Egyptian gods were not 'crowns,' but were stylized depictions of the appearance of the heavenly bodies as they actually appeared. This view is supported by the fact that no crowns resembling any of those shown in ancient Egyptian art have ever been found among the artifacts in excavated tombs. Thus the shape above Osiris Khenti Amenti represented the smoke and promenances issuing from proto-Venus.

osiris stela Arad NegevA primitive stone stela from the Early Bronze II or III Age (3050 to 2300 B.C. radiocarbon dates), was unearthed at Arad in the northern Negev desert. It is shown at right. It depicts two anthropomorphized forms - one standing and one laying down. This connotes the erect lava-tube formation on priori-Mars during the dance encounters and the collapsed form, after its collapse and as it was between encounters. What is of interest in connection with the previous explanation of the Egyptian djed-pillar is the 'head' of these figures. They are again depicted as a series of horizontal, parallel lines, further reinforcing the notion that this was the shape of the formation observed on priori-Mars.

When a pharaoh died, the Egyptians believed he was taken up into the sky to be with the gods. Referring to this process, the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts from the pyramid of Unas:

The gods who are in the sky are brought to you, the gods who are on the earth assemble for you, they place their hands under you, they make a ladder for you that you may ascend on it into the sky, the doors of the sky are thrown open to you, the doors of the starry firmament are thrown open for you.

We suggest that the 'ladder' referred to in this passage is describing the same formation as the Tet. In this instance, the series of parallel lines pictured at the 'top' of the djed piller are the rungs of this celestial ladder. A startling corroboration of this interpretation comes from Graham Hancock in Fingerprints of the Gods, who after quoting the above passage, paraphrases some of the other 'utterances' in the texts as follows:

The ascending pharaoh was identified with, and frequently referred to as 'an Osiris.’ Osiris himself, as we have seen, was frequently linked to and associated with the constellation Orion. Osiris-Orion was said to have been the first to have climbed the great ladder the gods had made. And several utterances left no doubt that this ladder had not extended upwards from earth to heaven, but downwards from heaven to earth. It was described as a rope-ladder and the belief was that it had hung from an 'iron plate' suspended in the sky.

Lacking any knowledge of a planet near the Earth, moreover any enormous feature extending toward the Earth, Mr. Hancock suggests that the constellation of Orion was the home of the sky-gods - a very unimpressive deity to be the focus of such a detailed description. I maintain that the ladder was the thousand kilometer high column of smoke and fire on priori-Mars. The most telling aspect of this interpretation of the Pyramid Texts is the description of the ladder hanging down from heaven toward the earth. This is exactly the way that the lava fountain formation represented by the djed piller appeared to the people on earth. It pointed from priori-Mars down toward the Earth and the parallel structures at its top were pictured as the rungs of the ladder.

Also of interest is the reference to the 'heaven' as an 'iron plate.’ This corroborates the idea that the Egyptians realized that iron meteorites came from priori-Mars and concluded that iron (bja, 'celestial metal') comprised the ‘heavens.’

The Velikovsky/Ackerman catastrophism paradigm also answers the long-standing question: Why were the great pyramids constructed ?  Each time priori-Mars was captured in geosynchronous orbit, the waters on Earth in the hemisphere facing it were pulled toward northern India by its tidal force, where they ‘piled up some 5,000 feet The same force pulled the entire Mediterranean Sea out of its bed, across northern Africa, the Levant and Mesopotamia. This happened relatively suddenly and with little warning because priori-Mars approached the Earth from the Sun side during the daytime. The effect was as if the entire land was tilted and the sea just flowed across the land. Different cultures protected themselves from these floods, which occurred every fifteen years, in different ways. In the Levant thick dam-like walls were built around tells and all the people rushed within the gates when the flood came. In Mesopotamia tells and ziggurats were used the same way. In Egypt, the solution was to build pyramids. They were a very stable form to avoid devastation by earthquakes, and could not be swept away by the waters. More pyramids had to be built as the population increased. When priori-Mars escaped, the flood was reversed, and the waters flowed back into the Red and Mediterranean Seas.

Although the exodus of the Jews from Egypt is not, strictly speaking, an Egyptian myth, it provides an important confirmation of the escape scenario, since it occurred at the time of a release of priori-Mars. This is confirmed by the fact that the lithosphere of priori-Mars, which contained the ‘column of smoke and fire’ drifted from the Transhimalayas westward and at first stood before the Jews. It then moved between them and the Egyptian army. In the V/A scenario, the Red Sea was completely dried up for the previous fifteen years, so the Jews crossed on dry ground, but as the outer shell of priori-Mars drifted westward its tidal force brought the waters back with it and these flowed into the Red Sea suddenly drowning the Egyptians. In this context, the prolonging of the period of plagues by the hardening of the Pharoah's heart and the command of the Lord for the Jews to wait at the edge of the ‘sea,’ imply that the He was ‘stalling’ until he knew that priori-Mars was finally separated and was about to drift westward.

Based on the consistent evidence supplied by Egyptian and other mythologies, it should be clear to any unbiased, thinking person, that the sole purpose of ancient, sacred myth was to record the cosmic encounters witnessed by one hundred generations of human beings. This knowledge is now available in the Velikovsky/Ackerman paradigm. The impacted scientific disciplines will continue to suffer until a true dialog between catastrophism and the current ‘gradualism’ paradigma is finally joined.

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